Ecuador explotará campo petrolero ubicado en una reserva ecológica

Rafael Correa anunció que su país explotará el campo Ishpingo-Tambococha-Tiputini (ITT), su mayor yacimiento petrolero ubicado en la Yasuní, ante la escasa respuesta de las naciones ricas para aportar a un fondo económico que evitaría su desarrollo.

En 2007 el gobierno de Correa había lanzado una inédita propuesta a la comunidad internacional proteger la reserva del Yasuní en la amazonia, que cuenta con algunas de las especies más diversas del planeta, pero ante la poca acogida al plan decidió arrancar con la explotación del campo Ishpingo-Tambococha-Tiputini (ITT).

“He firmado el decreto ejecutivo para la liquidación de los fideicomisos Yasuní-ITT y con ello poner fin a la iniciativa”, dijo el popular mandatario en una cadena de radio y televisión. “De igual manera, en el mismo decreto, ordeno la elaboración de los estudios técnicos, económicos y jurídicos (…) para solicitar a la Asamblea la declaratoria de interés nacional al aprovechamiento del petróleo en el Yasuní”, agregó.

El ITT alberga unos 920 millones de barriles de crudo, equivalentes al 20 por ciento del total de reservas comprobadas del país, según el popular mandatario. Para reunir los fondos, el país creó un fideicomiso administrado por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) para distribuir los recursos para proyectos del país en las zonas donde se realiza la explotación petrolera.

Correa dijo que el país logró reunir apenas unos 13,3 millones de dólares en fondos disponibles, apenas un 0,37 por ciento de lo esperado, y en compromisos no directamente vinculados con la iniciativa acumuló otros 116 millones de dólares. Los encargados de la iniciativa Yasuní-ITT hablaban de unos 336 millones de dólares en recaudaciones, que incluían ofrecimientos de varios sectores, pero sin cronogramas de entrega. “No era caridad lo que pedíamos, era corresponsabilidad en la lucha contra el cambio climático”, agregó Correa, al señalar que a valor presente la explotación del bloque arrojaría unos 18.200 millones de dólares.

YASUNI SEGUIRA VIVO

Correa garantizó que la actividad extractiva no podrá desarrollarse en un área superior al 0,01 por ciento de las 982.000 hectáreas que conforman el parque Yasuní y que albergan a varias especies de flora y fauna en peligro de extinción. La explotación del campo Tiputini, cuyo 80 por ciento de su área se encuentra fuera del parque, arrancará en los próximos días por la petrolera estatal Petroamazonas, luego de obtener los permisos ambientales.

La producción de los campos alcanzarían los 170.000 barriles diarios (bpd) en el año 2017, según un gráfico mostrado por el mandatario. Esa producción se sumaría a los 530.000 bpd que actualmente produce la nación andina, incluida la extracción de las firmas privadas.

El mandatario, que asumió su tercer mandato de cuatro años en mayo, ha dicho que el país necesita aumentar sus reservas petroleras para la explotación y así obtener recursos para atender a los sectores más desposeídos, que paradójicamente se encuentran en las zonas aledañas a la explotación petrolera. “El Yasuní seguirá viviendo, pero la pobreza disminuirá, y con suerte y adecuadas decisiones, la venceremos definitivamente”, añadió Correa, quien dijo que utilizará “adecuadas técnicas” para la explotación. Movimientos sociales y ecologistas han anunciado protestas en rechazo a la posible explotación del ITT por las implicaciones que tendría sobre la reserva y el ambiente.

“El Yasuní debe mantenerse y eso es más importante que el petróleo. No estamos en contra del desarrollo del país, ni en contra de Correa”, dijo Adrián Soria, un biólogo de 38 años, que junto a otros ambientalistas se agruparon a las afueras del Palacio de Gobierno para defender la reserva ecológica.

Ecuador no ha logrado aumentar sus reservas de crudo en los últimos años. El mes pasado pospuso una licitación internacional de bloques inexplorados ubicados al sur de la reserva Yasuní. En Yasuní, declarada “zona intangible”, habitan unas 567 especies de aves, 150 especies de anfibios y otras 121 de reptiles, entre otros.

Fuente: Reuters


Publicado en: Energía & Minería
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